Perfume Growth in Middle East Markets

Check out some of these perfumes that men love to smell on women whenever you’re bored or confused on what scent is right for you. Believe it or not, you’ll not get the much needed compliments from guys if you’re not wearing the right fragrance that has the ability and refreshing smell to turn them on.
The importance of perfumes in general life should not be undermined. It is true that we all want to smell really nice and fresh all time, but choosing the perfect scents that’ll suits you and other people’s mood has always becomes a major problem to both men and women, old or young.Sincerely, you have to be bothered about the way your body smells. Though you might say you have been wearing yours for years, but “are you sure you’re getting good compliments from friends and relatives?” And that is why it is very important you pay much attention to these feminine scents men love to smell on women all time. If you get yourself the right perfume, you have every tendency to set men’s mood in a romantic direction and in a more peaceful way. And everywhere you go, you get nothing but warm compliments from guys.
To attract potential mates, then you must always smell good and fresh to work and other important places. This you can make happen by wearing a perfect scent that’ll send the right signal to your partner, thus, he’ll love to have you very close to him always.
1. Channel No. 5 Perfume for Women by Channel: Channel No. 5 perfume is still the best ever made scent and good to wear anytime. It is very appealing and just very enjoyable. Guys usually fell in love with this feminine fragrance simply because of its light and refreshing floral aroma. The top notes are Aldehydes, Bergamot, lemon, Neroli; middle notes of Jasmine, Rose, Lily-Of-The-Valley, Orris; and base notes of Vetiver, Sandal, amber and vanilla. If you want to stand out in the crowd and get noticed, then wear this sweet smelling fragrance that quickly adapts to your body chemistry leaving you with a sexy floral scent that will receive compliments every time.
2. Light Blue by Dolce & Gabbana for women: Light Blue by Dolce & Gabbana is a clean, refreshing and fruity scent that lingers all day. Although, it has a light smell but last longer and not too overpowering. It is a good and perfect summer wear but I heard most girls prefers wearing it all season, be it winter or summer. It possesses top notes of Granny Smith Apple, Sicilian, Cedar, Bluebells; middle notes of Jasmine, White Rose, Bamboo; and blends well with the base notes of Musks, Amber and Cedarwood. If you want to get noticed by guys, then wear this one.3. Angel by Thierry Mugler: Angel by Thierry Mugler is rated as one of the best selling perfumes for women. It will make you smell nice and fresh. Of course, the sensual, sophisticated and elegant aroma makes it a perfect scent for all ages. And you’ll receive lots of compliments from men when being worn. It is recommended for daytime and night time use. Guys likes this fragrance because it contains top notes of Bergamot, Mandarin; middle notes of Passion fruit, Peach, Apricot; as well as the base notes of Patchouli, Chocolate, Caramel and Vanilla.
4. Obsession Night By Calvin Klein for Women: This sensual and sophisticated fragrance was created by Calvin Klein in the year 2005. And over the years, it has been so popular to the extent now a favorite scent for most girls who can afford the price. It is clean, light and its nice aroma stays on for a longer time. Yes, men love to smell it on girls. The top notes are Bergamot,Seville,Orange, Tangerine, Angelica; middle notes of Gardenia, Rose, Lily-of-the-Valley, Night-Flowering, Jasmine; and base notes of Amber, Ladanum, Sandalwood, Cashmere Wood, Tonka Bean and Vanilla. If you want to feel more seductive and fresh, try Obsession Night by Calvin Klein.
5. Euphoria Perfume for Women by Calvin Klein: This is another best selling feminine scent from Calvin Klein. It possesses the most appealing aroma that lingers softly all day. A couple of spray mixes with your own body chemistry, and easily it creates another unique sweet smell that can attract more men to whoever wears it. The notes all blends well making it very unique, sensual and sophisticated. So if you want to feel more confident and sexy and with warm compliments every time, just give it try and you’ll never be disappointed. It contains top notes of Pomegranate, Kaki, Green notes; middle notes of Lotus, Blossom, Champaca, Black Orchid; and base notes of Black Violet, Liquid Amber, Unctuous Notes, Mahogany and Musks. Wearing this, will make you look more attractive to your audience.If you’ve found this hub about the feminine scents men love useful, please rate it and if there are other sweet smelling fragrances, I mean those with nice aromas that guys love on girls but not listed above, feel free to drop them in the comment box below. Finally, remember to share with friends and bookmark for future reference. I strongly believed the question, “what perfumes do men like on women?” had been answered above.Perfume is without doubt the one cosmetic that has the ability to create the feel good factor instantly.
Scents in our body products such as body wash, lotions, deodorant or hand creams instantly gives us a lift.
Room fragrance such as potpourri or air fresheners have a calming, relaxing effect and are often used when we entertain guests to create an inviting ambiance.
Perfume or fragrance is something I adore in all its various forms, be it from natural elements such as the beach or sea to freshly baked bread or uplifting lavender flowers.
With perfume being a costly luxury product it makes sense to try making your own. It is easy to make your own solid perfume, a dab on perfume or even a spray Eau de Toilette.
Men’s Eau-de-Cologne is equally doable at home and makes for a perfect creative gift idea.
On top of the cost factor you know exactly what is going into your perfume, no hidden ingredients that may be toxic, synthetic or chemical in origin.
As with any homemade beauty recipe, the very best ingredients will produce as near perfect a product as possible.Perfume15 %
Eau de Toilette 4 – 8%
Eau de Cologne 1 – 5%Essential Oils:
5 drops Sweet Orange
9 drops Lemon
4 drops Tangerine
11 drops Frankincense
3 drops Neroli
2 drops Myrrh
Base:
11 ml Vodka or 11 ml Jojoba Oil
You will Need:
Blue or dark glass bottle
Funnel (optional)
Glass Rod (optional)
Method:
Add the vodka or the jojoba oil into your bottle.
One by one, add your essential oils. Give a stir with the glass rod.
Apply cap and give a good shake
Your perfume is now ready.
Tips:
If using the oil base, I recommend leaving it for a week to give it time to infuse more and settle.
Store in a cool, dark place and give a gentle shake daily.
Follow the correct percentage of essential oils, this recipe is 15% giving the most concentrated fragrance. It is important not to overuse essential oils so if reducing your base amount, remember to reduce your drops of fragrance.
Using the above recipe as a guide, I have put together a few smaller recipes using less amounts of different oils that will show you how easy it is to make your favorite perfume scent using your favorite oils.

Rose & Jasmine
10 drops Rose
9 drops Jasmine
10ml Jojoba Oil

Ylang-Ylang & Lavender
10 drops Ylang-Ylang
9 drops Lavender
10ml Jojoba Oil

Vanilla & Sandalwood
29 drops Vanilla
10 drops Sandalwood
11ml Jojoba OilAlso known as Portugal Orange or China Orange, this tree is native to China but is now extensively grown in USA.
Unpretentious, sweet, tangy and vibrant are all used to describe this fresh citrus fragrance which is used to uplift spirits, create calmness and induce a general happy mood.
Made from the peel of oranges, the cold pressed method of extraction is the best one to use as it most concentrate and pure.
Sunny, warm and a general feel good fragrance, it has many therapeutic and health benefits including preventing colds and flu, helps the digestive system, stimulates collagen in the skin and reduces stress levels.
Sweet Orange oil is safe, non-toxic and non-sensitizing oil but it may be phototoxic.
It is recommended that this is not applied when going out in sunlight for extended periods of time.One of the most popular citrus scents, lemon oil is also known as cedro oil. A native of India the lemon tree is synonymous with southern Mediterranean countries and is grown throughout the world in warm temperate climates.
The oil is extracted from the lemon peel as in sweet orange. A clean, fresh sharp fragrance known to help concentration and improve decision making it has many beneficial uses.
Containing vitamins A, B and C and is an excellent ingredient to use in skincare recipes such as rosewater and lemon face wash.
Lemon is a natural choice for including in air fresheners and potpourri and makes a refreshing addition to a cucumber spa water ideal for the warm summer days or


What Goes With a Red Couch?

Is that old couch of yours starting to sag? Do you think your living room needs an updated look? Have you moved, and now your couch just doesn’t fit your new space? So, where do you start when it comes to choosing a new couch? Choosing the right couch for your family, as well as your home, can be a daunting task. So, I will go through step by step, on everything you need to consider when buying a couch. Furniture is not cheap, and you want to make the right choice. The best thing you can do is be prepared!! Even before you step into a furniture showroom, there is a lot you need to do.All joking aside, in this case, size really does matter. The first thing you need to do is measure everything! I mean everything! From the entire room to the furniture itself. How big is the space you have? What other furniture do you have, or need in the room? How many people do you need space for? Is it just you and your significant other, or do you have a large family? Take all of this into consideration when deciding on the size of the couch you will need.
The first step is to measure out the room. You need to know how much room you have to work with before you can go pick out a couch. What is the size and shape of your room? This often determines what your options are. Do you have the space for that sectional with the chaise? Maybe, maybe not. Make a scale drawing of your room, including the placement of windows and doors. It doesn’t have to be a perfect blueprint, just a somewhat accurate drawing. I have found that the best way to do this is every foot in real space, equals one inch in the drawing. You may need a fairly large piece of paper for this, or you may need to adjust the scale of your drawing.
After you have done this, measure the furniture that you will be keeping in the room. Is that entertainment center staying? Or, are you starting from scratch? Take a separate piece of paper and draw scale drawings of these pieces of furniture, as well. I recommend a separate sheet of paper, so that you can cut out the pieces of paper that will represent your furniture, and place it on the room drawing to decide placement of furniture. Label all furniture drawings for easy reference. Keep them in an envelope or folder so that they do not get lost.
Where do you want your new couch? Arrange the furniture on your drawing and see what you like the best. Take into consideration placement of outlets, cable hookups, etc. There are also many types of software that are available that can create three dimensional drawings of rooms with furniture, floor coverings, and everything you can think of. This may be an option if you are willing to spend a little extra money. They run from between about $60-$500 dollars, depending on your needs. There are also free websites where you can do the same thing.Now that you have an idea of the amount of room you have to work with, and what pieces of furniture are staying in the room, you need to decide on the couch. Don’t rush out to the furniture store just yet. First, you need to get an idea of what you want. Salesmen are very good at talking you into something you do not really want, if you are not fully prepared ahead of time.
Go out and buy some interior design magazines, or browse online at furniture stores, decorating websites, or websites for all those wonderful HGTV shows. There is a wealth of information available in regards to styles, fabrics and colors. It can be a bit overwhelming.
Look around you. What do you see? Is there a certain style that appeals to you? Are you more traditional, more contemporary, or more prone to decorate in an ornate fashion? Use the style you have already incorporated into your home, especially the style you have incorporated into your living room. What is working for you, and what isn’t? Browse through those magazines and cut out pictures of couches you like. Jot down a note about why you liked it. Was it the color? The fabric? The curve of the back of the couch? Take inspiration from a piece you love, and go from there. Remember to take into account the pieces that will be staying in the room.
If you find a style of couch that you like, you are already most of the way there. Fabric and color are easy, in that most furniture stores carry the same style couch in a variety of fabrics and colors. If you are undecided on color, look at your room. Take cues from the colors of your room. Check out decorator rooms online, or in magazines to get ideas of color pallets that you might want to follow.
Fabric and color are very important in choosing the right couch for your family. Do you have kids? If so, you want a more durable, stain-resistant fabric. Do you have pets? If so, avoid anything that is woven or easily torn. Even pets with the best trimmed nails, and who generally stay off the furniture, can still cause a tear or two. When you go to pick out your couch, keep those things in mind, and talk with the salesperson about your concerns and the needs of your family. They will be able to help you select a fabric that will stand up to what you and your family can dish out.
As for color, couches come in a wide variety of colors, and patterns. While you may be drawn to that bright purple couch right now, you may not be so fond of it a few months or years down the road. Generally, on the more expensive furniture items, it is best to go with a neutral color, and add those punches of color with accent pillows or accessories throughout the room. Neutral does not mean boring!!! A tone-on-tone neutral stripe with some brightly colored pillows can really bring life to a room.Now that you have all the information you need, from size to style and color to fabric, you are ready to head to the store. While you are at the store, ask a lot of questions, look at all of your options, but remember to focus on your needs, not what the salesperson is pushing on you. Do you need seating for at least four? Don’t go with the small love seat. Refer to your style choices, stick with neutrals, and find a fabric that suits the demands that your family will be putting on the couch. You may not find exactly what you want at the first store you go to, but take your time, and make sure you make the right decision.I moved into my first real apartment about two and a half years ago, and right after I moved in I bought my first real set of living room furniture. I got it off of craigslist, and the set came with a couch, chaise lounge, and coffee table for only a hundred bucks! I really liked the burnt orange color of the couch and chaise lounge when I bought it, and the coffee table was gorgeous. They all went with my color scheme that I had in my living room!
But, the thing I didn’t like was that the corduroy fabric on the seat cushions had started to wear away from years of use. At the time, it wasn’t a big deal – I just bought a floral blanket in the colors of my living room and wrapped them up so the couch looked newer and un-worn. That worked great for a while!
Right after I got the set, though, I adopted two kittens, Zeus and Oliver. They are my babies, but they also loved the couch as much as I did…so much that they wanted to literally be inside of it. After a few months of using the couch as a cat toy (unpreventable at this point because I was working a lot and they would do it while I wasn’t home) they pulled the left side of the couch open and used it as a hiding and sleeping spot. I didn’t mind much because I am pretty sure I bought the couch knowing that I would end up redoing it when I moved – and if I didn’t it would just get chucked in the trash. It was an old couch and I knew it.
In December 2013 I started looking for new apartments because I needed to move closer to my job. And when I started doing that, I started getting ridiculously crafty and planning these huge projects to completely make over all of my furniture. I started planning colors and buying supplies in January 2014. My first victim was the coffee table – and you can read about that tutorial here! I restained and refinished that in March. I took a couple weeks off from projects to move, then once I got into my new place in April I started the couch.
Now, I would like to iterate that every couch is different and you won’t be able to follow this tutorial exactly, especially if your couch has more detailing than mine did. Plus, if you’re a beginner like me you are bound to make mistakes. I made many – and you might have to improvise some extra detailing in the couch to cover up your mistakes (which I had to do…a LOT)! But, to help prevent mistakes, I’ve included my thoughts on my first project as well as videos that I used from professionals that show you how to do certain parts of the couch. I hope you find this useful – enjoy!This is NOT a one-weekend project if you work full-time or have multiple jobs. But, if you have the time and your couch is the right structure, you could probably do it in five or six days of eight to ten hours


2011 World Cup : Best Cricketers Records, Photos, Videos, Winning shots, IPL latest news, photos

By
definition, Cricket is a form of outdoor sports, which is played by two teams with
bat, ball and field, in an oval shaped area. It carries a set of regulations
and an umpire to implement them.

Cricket
is known worldwide as a sensational game, which creates tremendous amount of
hype and thrill in the hearts of cricket lovers around the globe. It is known
as a gentlemen’s game, but its viewership includes women, children and aged
people from all around the world.

It
is somewhat similar to the baseball in its functioning, but the rules and
regulations are different.Cricket
became popular in early 70s. Since then, it is said to be originated from
England in 1975. In recent times, it is organized on the international level
under the supervision of ICC International Cricket Council. The headquarters of
ICC is in Dubai, UAE.The
game starts when a coin is tossed in the air to shift the first bating or bowling
decision for the captain (of the team), who wins the toss. The objective of this
game is to score maximum runs in its turn to bat, called as an innings.Each
team comprises of 11 players entitled to play in a match by the authorities.
The players can be regarded as batsmen or bowlers depending upon their level of
skills in respective fields. A player, who has a balanced performance, is an all-rounder.

The
number of batsmen in a team is mostly 5 – 6, while the number of bowlers is 4 –
5. The
key functions that players have to perform are:

·        
Bating

·        
Bowling

·        
FieldingBatsman:The
batsman has to score runs by hitting the ball to the field. If the ball crosses
boundary without being held by the fielder, score is four and if it flies
straight away from the boundary without touching the ground, it is called a
sixer i.e., 6 runs.

A
batsman can also run between the wickets to make runs. A wicket-to-wicket
running from one end to the other of the pitch confines one run.

Two batsmen
are allowed on the field at a time with one holding the strike. The rest of
team players wait in the pavilion area for their turn. A batsman is out when:

·
The ball/bat hits the bails·
The ball stroked by the batsman flies in the air
and gets caught

·
The leg
before wicket appeal (l.b.w) made by the bowler is approved by the umpire

·
In case of run out; when the ball returned by
the fielder struck bails off before the batsman is in the crease.Bowler:It
is the job of a bowler to throw ball to the batsman with a particular line and length.
The aim of the bowler however, should be to limit score to the minimum and to
dismiss the batsman.

An
inning is divided into overs and an over is divided into 6 balls delivered. The
overs vary with the type of cricket, whereas, the number of balls vary if there
are wide or no ball attempts from
the bowler. No bowler can bowl two consecutive overs. A bowler can try
bouncers, Yorkers, in and off swings and spin the ball to get it in the right
area to dismiss the batsman. The line and length however, is a crucial factor,
which has to be maintained anyway.Fielder:All
the players in a team have to field when the bowler of the team is bowling and
the opposite team is on the bat. Fielding is about saving runs by picking,
catching and stopping the ball within the boundary when a batsman of the
opponent team strikes. All of the fielders are committed to perform same task
and can shift positions according to the instruction of their team captain.

However,
the Wicket keeper has to guard stumps, wear gloves to catch the ball in case of
missed delivery or catch coming near the stumps.The
field is a circular ground with lush green grass and its dimensions are not fixed.
The radius of the field is 137m – 150m (450 – 500 feet).

The
boundary of the field is defined by a rope, which sets border of the ground separating
it from rest of the stadium.Pitch: The
rectangular ground patch in the middle, with a little bit of grass on it, is
called a Pitch. One end of pitch is used as batting area and the other end as
bowling area. The size of the pitch is 20.12m in length and 3.05m in width.Wickets:Three
upright wooden sticks called wickets are fixed in the ground at both ends of
the pitch with a height of 71.1 cm and width of 22.86cm. Two cross pieces of
wood, the bails, sit in a furrow over these wickets.

The
word wicket is used in multiple ways, whereas, in cricket language, it can be referred
to:

 Stumps and bails The pitch Batsman out/not-out To get batsman outCrease:Painted
lines on the pitch to adjudge dismissal of the batsman, while running between
the wickets or leaving batting end after a bowl is delivered.

A
crease is drawn across the pitch, which aligns stumps to its width.

Bowling
crease is 2.64m (8 feet 8 inches) in length.

Distance
between the two creases is 20.12m.

The batting
(popping) crease is 1.22m in front of the stumps at each end, with the stumps
set along the bowling crease.

Return
creases are situated at right angles to the batting and bowling creases and are
measured 1.32m either side of the middle stumps.Umpires: In
cricket, there are two umpires on the field.

 The position of first umpire is behind the
stumps, facing towards the batsman to declare most on-the-spot decisions. Striker end Umpire or square leg umpire gives
side view of the batsman, playing an assistant’s role. An off field third umpire is provided with
visual-replays facility in a separate room at the stadium to supervise laws and
spirit of the game. He makes decisions, which are forwarded by the field
umpires. Reserved Umpire is also present for emergencies. An official scorer is present to ensure fair
recording of the runs and overs.Depending
upon their duration, number of innings and overs, cricket series is categorized
into 3 major forms:

Test Cricket seriesOne Day Internationals (ODI)Twenty-twenty series (T-20)Test Series:It
is one of the most popular forms of cricket. A series usually comprises of a
five test matches. Most of the matches are often finished before time. This
form of cricket, aims to keep spirit of early cricket, alive. A five days long
match gives clear cut evaluation of a team’s performance. The stamina,
technique and skill of a batsman, bowler, fielder or a wicket keeper is further
used to rank the team overall and the players individually, at the end of each
series.

Time Duration:

Time
duration is five days and about six hours of play time each day. Each team has
to bowl out the whole competitor team, twice. A day is divided into three
sessions, with a 40-mins lunch break and a 20-mins tea break with periodic
breaks for drinks.

Innings:

Test
series comprise of two innings per team. An innings ends either when all team
is out or when the bating team’s captain declares the innings. If the second
innings is not complete and the bating line is still playing at the last day of
match, then the match is declared as a ‘draw.’ The number of innings is
interrupted in case of Follow on,
which occurs when the second team is all out on a fewer runs than the first
team.

Overs:

At
least 90 overs have to be bowled each day. If at the time of stumps, the
required number of overs is not bowled, play is extended to complete it.
Minimum is calculated by dividing remaining time of play in mins by 4. At last
day, 15 overs are added to the calculated minimum.

In case
of poor weather, the match is delayed. In poor light the umpires put decision
to the batsman for further proceeding of the match.Ball Dimensions:A
test cricket ball is red in color. It has a weight of 155.9 and 163.0 g (5 and
5.75 ounces) and measure between 8 13/16 and 9 in (224 and 229 mm) in
circumference. A new ball is given at the start of each innings. The ball is
replaced, in case, after 80 overs on fielding captain request, if the ball is
damaged or lost or has reshaped.Uniform:Cricket
whites or white flannels are to be used while playing a test series. It
increases visibility of red ball as compared to white color. The color is
helpful in avoiding heat on field, all day long.Time Duration:

As
the name indicates, the match has to culminate in one day, so, time is
restricted in one day internationals to; approximately 210 mins (3, 1/2 hrs). It
is one of the most exciting forms of cricket, which bring into light, the era
of players in colored uniform, night match with flood lights, sight screens in
darkness, and multiple camera angles.

Innings:

There
is a single inning per team during which, the first team sets a target for the
other team to achieve.

Overs:

 Fifty overs have to be bowled in one day
internationals. The number may be varied by umpires by one or two overs, if
there is a light problem or extra time has been consumed by the bowling team. Number
of overs per bowler is also fixed, i.e. 10 overs for each bowler. Strict rules
on wide balls and short deliveries are applied.Winning Criteria:The
team with greater scores/runs wins.Ba


The Best Hiking and Backpacking Recipes

There is SO much I could write about hiking in the Grand Canyon, but I want to focus on hiking rim to rim using the popular “corridor” trails in the central part of the National Park. I usually do my rim to rim trips from south rim to north, so that’s the order in which I’ll present the information. While it’s not responsible to advocate hiking rim to rim in a single day, it’s something I’ve done a number of times. But I’ve also done the same hike over a week and encourage all first-time Grand Canyon hikers — or those who prefer to stop and smell the cactus flowers — to spend multiple days getting from one side of the Canyon to the other.
In fact, I highly discourage people from hiking rim to rim — or rim to river and back — in a single day. Don’t even attempt this unless you’re fit and already very familiar with hiking in the Canyon. Below you’ll find some information on the corridor trails and sites and stopping points along the way, interwoven with journal entries from my own 7-day rim to rim Grand Canyon hike. I’ve also included suggestions on when to go, what to bring, and where (and when) to get water, as well as some informative and fun reading material. Be sure to post any questions or comments in the guestbook at the end. Hope this is helpful!Photo Above: My friend, Martin, at Ooh-Aah Point on the South Kaibab Trail, Grand Canyon, taken on a rim-to-rim hike on October 1stThis video combines trail footage with fly-thru animations to orient you to the Corridor Trails in the Grand Canyon — the Bright Angel and the South and North Kaibab.
Run time: 63 minutesAuthor Seth Muller lives here in Flagstaff, where I’m from, and, believe me, he knows the Grand Canyon well. He’s also an excellent writer.June 10th
Location: South Rim, Grand Canyon National Park
Tonight I sleep in the bed of a pickup, where I can almost write by the moonlight alone. The trees are glowing above the campfire, and I swear I can hear the Canyon nearby. It almost seems to whisper.
My hiking companions and I stood at the edge of the South Rim today, where I last stood five years ago when Steve and I hoisted our packs and set off on our honeymoon. Had it been five months or five days ago, my reaction would be the same: Awesome! And no matter how many people stand there with me.
The South Rim of the Grand Canyon bustles with activity most of the year, but tomorrow we’ll leave more than 99% of Park visitors behind when we drop below the rim. I expect the number of hikers will decrease as we move toward the Kaibab Plateau on the north side of the Canyon.
I’m pleased to find that my hiking partners are like old friends. Easy to be with and talk to. Good people to share this hike with. I feel very lucky to be here.The most populated area of Grand Canyon National Park
You could spend a full day, if not an entire vacation, seeing the sights at the South Rim. There, you’ll find hotels and cabins, a campground and RV parks within the National Park boundaries, historic buildings, free ranger talks and interpretive displays, restaurants and shops, groceries, even a bank and post office, as well as many viewpoints where you can take in the grandness of the canyon.
In addition to being a tourist destination, Grand Canyon Village is home to about 2,000 Park employees and their families, so there’s also a school, grades K-12, and medical facilities located there.
The South Rim is a fun place to begin and/or end a rim to rim hike, perhaps with a stay in a comfortable hotel room and a nice, big meal to celebrate the accomplishment. And, if you want to walk off some of those post-hike kinks, there’s even a paved Rim Trail to wander along and watch the colors of the Canyon change as the sun sets.
Grand Canyon Village is visited twice a day by the Grand Canyon Railway, bringing visitors to and from the town of Williams, Arizona. For information about this service and their various vacation packages, visit the Grand Canyon Railway website. I’ve never taken the train, myself, but this would probably be a fun addition to your trip if you want to spend a little extra time (and money).
NOTE: A free shuttle service is available year-round to take visitors from one point along the South Rim to another, so you can park your car and forget about it till you’re ready to leave.One of two Corridor trails from the South Rim to the Colorado River
The South Kaibab Trail is a ridge trail with incredible, wide-reaching views all along it’s 6.3-mile (10.1 km) route from rim to river. Keep in mind there is no shade or water to be had on this trail, so hike early or hike late in the day during summer months, wear sunscreen and a hat, and carry more water than you think you’ll need. In the hotter months, I carry four liters on this trail, even when going down … just in case. (And if I don’t need all of it, I often see someone who’d love to take some off my hands … uh, back.)
If you’re hiking rim to rim in a single day, traveling south to north, then the South Kaibab Trail is the shorter route from rim to river. The trail begins near Yaki Point and descends 4,860 feet to the black suspension bridge at the Colorado River. Because there is no water along this steep trail, Park rangers recommend hiking down this trail only rather than up and using the Bright Angel trail for a hike out.
I love the South Kaibab Trail and don’t personally consider it all that steep compared to some switchback-free trails I’ve hiked back east. It is more exposed than the Bright Angel Trail, but, coming from someone who isn’t fond of heights and drop-offs, it’s not scary at all. And you’d have to take a flying leap to fall off, believe me. Now, if the upper portion of the trail is icy, I’d most definitely use crampons, so go prepared if you’re hiking during the winter. Yes, the South Rim gets snow.
NOTE: If you choose to hike the South Kaibab Trail, you can park in the dirt lot along Desert View Drive and walk the quarter-mile to the trailhead, or park in Grand Canyon Village and take the free park shuttle right to it.My choice of a South Rim trail for a multi-day, rim to rim hike
The “B.A.” (pictured to the right) is the most heavily used trail in Grand Canyon, especially the upper mile and a half. The further down into the canyon you go, however, the less company you’ll have, especially on the lower portion from Indian Gardens to the Colorado River. Keep your eyes peeled as you leave the rim, and I guarantee you’ll see somebody wearing heels.
Anyhow, the Bright Angel Trail begins just west of the historic Kolb Studio and follows a fault line 7.8 miles (12.6 km) to the River Trail, which you then hike another 1.5 miles to Bright Angel Campground via the silver suspension bridge pictured above. (Phantom Ranch is half a mile beyond that.) I usually think of the B.A. and River Trail as all one 9.3-mile trail to the bridge and campground beyond.
Hikers going southbound, ascending from river to South Rim, usually prefer the Bright Angel Trail to the South Kaibab even though it’s longer. The availability of potable drinking water at the halfway point at Indian Gardens and, seasonally, at two other locations between there and the rim make it more appealing, as do the two shaded rest houses three miles and 1.5 miles before the top. If you time your hike out for the late afternoon, a good portion of the trail itself will also be in the shade.
As on the South Kaibab, BA hikers share the trail with mules. If you see a mule train approaching, stand off to the inside of the trail and remain still as the mule train passes.
NOTE: If you’ll be leaving a vehicle at the South Rim’s Grand Canyon Village, be sure to park in the backcountry lot. You’ll get a map as you drive into the park, and the lots will be marked on there. (Depending on the time of year and time of day — or night rather — there sometimes is no ranger at the entrance station, so you might want to print this map to bring with you. Click here to print a copy of the map of Grand Canyon Village.)June 11th
Distance: 4.6 miles
From South Rim to Indian Gardens via the Bright Angel Trail
Last night was a cold one, with temps in the low 40s, and me in just a sleeping bag liner, a long-sleeved shirt, fleece vest, and shorts. I should have been better prepared for the often chilly nighttime and early morning air on the rim.
Ooh, a little bird just landed a few inches away, on the edge of my unzipped tent door, and stayed for most of a minute.
The animals that live in these high-use areas of the Canyon are quite habituated to humans, who are equated with meals. The Park Service provides large ammo cans at each campsite for food and trash storage, both of which are supposed to be packed out by the people who brought them in.
Ground (or rock) squirrels, ring-tailed cats, mule deer and stinging ants are the most common campsite raiders in the Canyon.
In other trail journals of mine, I’ve often talked about my fears. But that’s not the case in Grand Canyon; I feel very comfortab


What Are The Best Websites for Drug Information?

 
Since the late 1980s many companies and governmental agencies in the United States have subjected prospective employees to drug testing. It’s all very legal since the Supreme Court upheld the legality of drug testing as far back as 1986, ruling that it is not a violation of one’s Constitutional rights, particularly as they relate to the Fourth Amendment, protecting people against unreasonable searches and seizures. But the tough part is answering the question: What is a reasonable search?
Now drug testing is also used on students, welfare recipients, soldiers, convicts and parolees, but this article doesn’t deal with those situations.
These drug screens, as they’re called, come in various types and test for the presence of different types of drugs – illegal or otherwise. This article tries to inform people about what they should know when a company wants to collect and then analyze their bodily fluids, hair or other tissues before hiring them.
TYPES OF DRUG TESTS

Drug testing requires that a specimen be tested on-site or sent to a laboratory, where it can be analyzed using mass spectrometry, an expensive and time-consuming procedure. Most of these tests check for the presence of five to 10 different drugs, illegal or otherwise. Moreover, the threshold of detection for most of these tests is 50 nanograms per milliliter. For comparison, similar tests for Olympic athletes have a much lower threshold, measured in picograms (trillionths of a gram) and are therefore much harder to beat, detecting the use of various drugs many months after their usage.
Urine Analysis
This test requires that a person urinate in a cup so the urine can be tested for the presence of drugs and/or their metabolites. The most commonly used test, the pee test is the easiest to beat because the urine sample can be diluted somewhat if the person simply drinks lots of water before urinating in the cup; or fake urine can be used or somebody else’s, for that matter. Also, drugs such as aspirin, vitamins such as B-2 and B-12 or various herbs can be taken to flush a person’s system before taking the test, but the effectiveness of these substances is uncertain – unless you believe the guarantees of the people trying to sell them! Substances can also be added to the sample to detoxify some – if not all – drugs present within it.
Interestingly, an article in Wikipedia states that about five per cent of pre-employment urine samples test positive for drugs.
Saliva Analysis
The use of this test is becoming more prevalent because it is less intrusive than urine or blood testing, and it is harder to adulterate or dilute the specimen. This convenience of usage makes saliva testing preferable for use in “random drug testing,” where the presence of drugs can be detected almost immediately after use, and also the “level of intoxication” can be measured with greater accuracy.
Perspiration Drug Screen
So called sweat tests are not used for pre-employment screening, because a patch must be applied to the person’s skin to collect perspiration over a period of one to four hours. This test is used only when urine sampling is not practical, such as by parole departments and child protective services.
Blood Analysis

The blood test is essentially the same procedure as the urine or saliva analyses, except the specimens come from a different part of the body. But the blood test has disadvantages: it is more intrusive and costs more; also, the urine and saliva tests detect the presence of drugs or metabolites much sooner. The greatest advantage for the blood test – from the point of the view of the employer of course – is that it is much harder to tamper with the specimen.
Hair Analysis

This test is designed to find drug metabolites in any hair sample taken from the human body. Theoretically any drug consumed within the last 90 days can be detected with this test; however, if the person’s hair is very long, the time of detection could be considerably longer than 90 days. One disadvantage of the test is that it’s more expensive than other tests, because the hair sample has to be sent to a lab, from which it can take up to three days to receive the results.
Furthermore, hair samples can also be tampered with using chemicals, such as those found in shampoos and other hair treatments. For example, the testable amount of THC (marijuana) can be reduced by using such treatments, because THC isn’t readily absorbed by the epithelial cells in hair. Also keep in mind that it can take seven to 10 days after a drug is taken for a strand of hair to grow long enough to be cut and then tested. So if you want to beat this dreaded test, just make sure you use drugs immediately before taking the test.
Fingernail Analysis

Fingernails or toenails can also be tested for the presence of drugs. Similar to hair, which contains keratin, drug use in nails has been measured since 1984. A specimen is simply clipped from the body, thoroughly cleaned, and then liquefied and tested. The advantages of this test are that the specimen is almost impossible to alter in any way, and the test shows what drugs a person has taken in the last six to eight months (depending on the length of the nail).
Detection Time
While a hair test can detect just about any drug for up to 90 days, detection time varies greatly when one is given a urine, saliva or blood test. THC and benzodiazepine (sedatives) tend to stay in one’s system the longest, a time measured in weeks rather than days. Ironically perhaps, some of the most dangerous and addictive drugs – heroin, methamphetamine and cocaine – stay in one’s system for only three to five days. Therefore, it seems pot smokers and users of Valium and Librium (called benzos on the street) may risk the greatest chance of detection. Nevertheless, an occasional pot smoker can beat a urine analysis in as little as seven to 14 days.
(Incidentally, people often use benzos with methadone, creating a heroin-like high.)

Final Words

Keep in mind that it’s possible for people to get a “false positive” after taking a drug test. The Web site, www.Passing-Drug-Test.com, claims that more than 250 over-the-counter and prescription drugs can cause a false positive. For example, Ibuprofen can cause a false reading for THC; cold medications can do likewise for amphetamines; and antibiotics can cause a reading for cocaine. Also, according to a February 2011 episode of Mythbusters, eating poppy seeds before a test can give you a reading for opiates!
If you get a false positive, demand that you be given a second test. Unfortunately, corporations and governmental agencies seem to have all the rights regarding drug testing, but individuals still have some rights in this regard. However, you better act fast before even those rights disappear like the glaciers!

In conclusion, if you’re worried about the possible outcome of a drug test, educate yourself as much as possible before taking it. And if you’re really adventurous, try whatever countermeasure you deem acceptable given your code of ethics and/or level of necessity. Good luck!

Please leave a comment.One would think, in the age of Google and Yahoo, doing research on your prescription or OTC (over the counter) medication would be simple. Just punch in your drug name…and TADA…up pops the most useful, relevant and accurate information about your particular pill. Oh if only that were the case….
The truth is that internet information is a two-edged sword. On the one hand we probably have access to MORE GOOD information than ever before. But on the other hand we also have access to an overwhelming amount of BAD and IRRELEVANT information as well. How do you know who to trust? And how do you know where to begin? What websites are reliable and user-friendly for the average Jane or Joe who wants to know more about their medications? I’m going to tell you!
The purpose of this article is to direct you to what are, in my opinion, some of the most helpful websites when it comes to researching your medication. As a pharmacist, and one who personally enjoys digging in and researching what I can discover about drugs and diseases, I have discovered that all drug-information websites are NOT created equal.
What makes for a GOOD (in my opinion) website for looking up drug information?
1) Accuracy: The information HAS to be correct. False or misleading claims, opinions parading around as facts, or outdated information and data that looks like it was written orininally on stone tablets simply is not good enough. Now, even the best sites will sometimes have mistakes. Humans, after all, are probably involved in the process somewhere! But a good drug research website should have consistently accurate information for us to rely on.
2) Clarity: Many websites suffer from what has been called, in psychology circles, the “Curse of Knowledge.” Basically, they are written by people who live and breathe drug information, and


Symbian Windows Mobile |Undetectable Bugging

It seems that more people are relying on mobile devices rather than computers. When laptops were introduced, they were touted as easy to carry computers. We could take them anywhere. Well, maybe. I’ve carried a few laptops that were heavier than CPUs. Besides, have you ever tried to stop on a sidewalk and open a laptop? Not easy. Just because you have your laptop doesn’t guarantee internet access. If you aren’t somewhere near WiFi, you won’t be very successful. Have you ever driven around hotel parking lots, trying to find a signal? Guilty. Now a lot of restaurants have WiFi, if your computer speaks the same language as their system. I have been in restaurants where my computer didn’t like their system and it was obvious there would be no connection there.
Young people today want access to the internet and they want it now. They want it wherever they are. That means on the highway, in the mountains, on the hiking trail, or in downtown New York. To get what they want, they rely on mobile devices.
I live in the woods of East Texas and can barely get a signal for my cell phone, so I opted not to get a Smartphone with my new contract. My daughter came to visit and we drove to a neighboring town for a little shopping. Three times during that visit, she used her Smartphone to retrieve information for us. All three times, I was ribbed for not having a Smartphone. Once she obtained directions for our destination quicker than my portable GPS. I must admit, I was impressed.
Mobile devices are getting smarter and quicker. People are relying on them more and more. The devices are no longer a luxury. They are interactive useful devices which can be valuable when information is needed.If you listen to the advertisements a tablet, Kindle, or Nook will do anything a computer can do. Try doing a long doc on them. It might be possible, but will take forever. There are just some things that require a computer. Mobile devices are wonderful and getting better every day, but there have been some limitations. Until now.This week, Nov. 6, 2014, Microsoft announced that Office would now be free on mobile. There will be no subscription for use on Android or iOS, It can now be used on mobile devices like it has been on computers. You can now create and edit content without a subscription to Office 365. This is pretty big since Office wasn’t even available on iPad until the summer of 2013. A little over a year later, they make Office free for mobile. Technology is moving quickly. Here are some links to great articles which explain it very well:

Microsoft is still offering its Office 365 subscription. Why? Who would pay for a subscription when the app is free? Well, the free isn’t exactly equal to the subscription. There are some things that you must have a subscription to do.
Orientation: The free version does not have the option of orienting the screen. Anything created using the free app will be in portrait.
Columns in Word: The free app does not allow you to put your Word docs in columns. Your document will be placed on the entire width of the paper.
Section Breaks: The free app doesn’t allow you to insert section breaks.
Track Changes: Track changes are only available with a subscription. This might not matter to most people, until they get a paper that has been tracked. The markings can be very confusing. The free app cannot delete the marks so the document can be easily read.
Advanced Editing of Text: The free app will be unable to use Text Styles or Word Art.
Advanced Editing of Charts: Elements within the chart will not be changed in the free version.
Advanced Editing of Graphs: Changing colors is available only with the subscription.
Editing of Pictures: Shadows and reflections are available only with the subscription.
Microsoft calls the subscription “Premium Features.” Some people might feel they are worth the subscription cost.Owners of iPhones received another gift from Microsoft. Microsoft is now releasing new Word, Excel, and PowerPoint apps for the iPhone. This is a stand alone app separate from the nonsubscription Office app.
Microsoft took a look at the over 40 million downloads and decided to give users what they needed most to do their jobs.

Office seems to be one of those apps that you either love or hate. Some people find it difficult and cumbersome. Personally, I’m a fan. I love the formatting capabilities. I find there is very little I can’t do with Word. I’ve created menus, banners, worksheets, letters, newsletters, brochures, flyers, and more. Once I added Snipit to my programs, I could combine several pictures into one big picture. I was able to take separate pictures of my books and combine them into one picture making them appear to be stacked. Then I was able to rearrange the stack, placing a new one on top each time. I’m a big fan of text boxes. If you are having trouble with things shifting on the page when you are designing, try putting them in a text box. Then you can put the box where you want without the font moving.
Once I learned Excel, I was hooked. If you know the tricks of Excel, you can do fascinating things with it. If you need to organize information in more than one category, Excel is the tool that will do it for you. The charts and graphs created by Excel make it look like you worked much harder than you did. I’m for that.
I’m still a fan of PowerPoint. Some have said it is outdated, but more people use PowerPoint than any other presentation software. It will actually do much more than people think. Like Excel, it is packed with features that few take the time to learn. Once unlocked, the features can produce some mind-blowing presentations.
I’ve mentioned that PowerPoint can do more than people know. I will release a hub on Monday that will give more information about these features. Before Christmas, everyone will be able to unlock the hidden treasures in PowerPoint. More information to come on Monday. Stay tuned.After a year of paying $172 a month to Brand-X for their smartphone plan, my wife and I switched to Virgin Mobile, mainly to save a lot of money. We knew going in that Virgin Mobile’s coverage in the US was not nearly as good as that of Brand-X (or should I say Brand-V?), but Virgin Mobile’s no-contract plan was so much cheaper, we thought we’d give it a shot. After more than a year with Virgin Mobile, I have definitely formed some opinions.
Monthly Service Fee *****
Let’s start off with Virgin Mobile’s strongest feature. They have several smartphone plans as well as other plans to choose from. We chose the cheapest of their Beyond Talk plans because A) It was cheap and B) It fit us like a glove. For $25 a month (each) we each get 300 anytime talk minutes, unlimited messaging and unlimited data. This has worked out very well for us. One month, my wife ran out of talk minutes so I simply topped up her minutes for $10. This carried her through the few days left in the month and we still have a $4 credit.
The Beyond Talk plans are no-contract plans. Every month I go to the Virgin Mobile website and pay for next month’s service with our registered credit card. I could have them automatically charge us, but I don’t do that.
Now, within a month of signing up for their $25/month plan, they increased all their Beyond Talk plans by $10 a month (300 minutes is $35, 1200 minutes is $45 and unlimited minutes is $55). Irritated, and thinking it was all my fault (I have the reverse effect on stock prices), I gritted my teeth and prepared to save a little less money. Virgin Mobile contacted me and said my cost would not rise as long as we maintained our monthly service. They grandfathered the price I signed up for– even though there is no contract between us. After more than a year we still pay $25 (plus tax) per phone. How many times have you been screwed because you were an existing customer?
One more thing: We pay $25 plus Iowa sales tax; there are no hidden fees, no “special” taxes, no just-plain-odd additions to your bill. Our monthly payment is and always has been exactly two times $26.75, or $53.50.Now let’s turn to Virgin Mobile’s Achilles Heel: coverage. Virgin Mobile uses the Sprint network only; there is no roaming (and therefore no roaming charges). This was my main cause of concern and it will be a deal breaker for many people. Their map indicated that we should be all right in Eastern Iowa, but what was reality– and what about traveling?

First, coverage has been great at home and around Eastern Iowa. We’ve traveled to Western Iowa, but, since we stayed on main highways, we’ve had no problems. I went to Detroit for a week and had no problems (this is good because I depend on Android’s Navigator to get around). In actuality we don’t travel much, but the one time we had no coverage was when we went to Fairbanks, Alaska. This wasn’t a surprise and we prepared for this eventuality by drawing upon all our pre-cellphone skills from the ancient days. We have Virgin Mobile’s LG Optimus V phones.


Best Discount Perfumes and Colognes for Women, with Descriptions and Reviews

Do you spend a lot of money on luxury perfume? If so, have you ever wondered what the most expensive perfume in the world is? I don’t know about you, but if I am dressing up to go out, I never feel that I am completely ready until I have sprayed myself with my favourite perfume. Fragrance is something that I will never scrimp on and I always have good quality perfume.
But while I like to splash out on perfume, there are some luxury fragrances out there in the top stores that you need to be seriously rich to be able to afford. Fragrance has been used since ancient times, when incense and burning fragrant resins and aromatic woods was used during religious ceremonies.
The ancient Egyptians used frankincense, myrrh and cassia and it is believed that the ancient Greeks introduced the first liquid perfumes. The development of modern chemistry in the nineteenth century led to the development of modern scents, and they have evolved from single floral fragrances such as rose, lilac, jasmine or lavender into the complex perfumes that we have today, with many fragrance notes and overtones.
Of course, if you are going to produce an expensive, luxury perfume, you will need to put it in an equally beautiful, elegant container, and the top perfume makers were soon using crystal manufacturers such as Lalique and Baccarat to create exquisite and unique perfume bottles for them.So what is it that makes an expensive perfume expensive? It is a combination of the cost of the ingredients, the cost of the bottle and the packaging and the name of the maker. Some of the most expensive perfumes in the world use very costly and rare ingredients to make them so special, and these include Tahitian vanilla, sandalwood, oakmoss, ambergris, and vetivert.
Certain flowers, such as orange flowers, rose and jasmine, give us the most expensive perfume oils, which are known as ‘absolute’ and every top fragrance contains a percentage of at least one of these oils. The exact ingredients and formula of luxury fragrances is kept a very strict secret for commercial reasons, but there are some broad traditional classifications that they fall into.
These classifications are single floral, floral bouquet, oriental, wood, leather, chypre and fougere. Top luxury perfumes are also sold in exquisitely produced bottles, which are made from the finest crystal, with stoppers made of gold and silver and often set with diamonds and other precious gemstones. In fact some fragrance bottles are so beautiful and precious, that they become collector’s items in their own right and can fetch huge amounts of money at auction.
The name of a top maker or designer on the bottle also allows a luxury perfume to have a higher price tag, and names like Chanel, Ralph Lauren, Jean Patou and Hermes are on some of the most expensive perfumes in the world.
Well, the most expensive fragrance in the world at this present time is No 1 by Clive Christian, for which you can expect to pay around £2,700 for a bottle. No 1 by Clive Christian has the distinction of being recorded in the Guinness Book of Records as the world’s most expensive perfume and if £2,700 is not expensive enough for you, then you can upgrade to the Imperial Majesty edition of this fragrance which is presented in a bottle made of Baccarat crystal set with a superlative diamond on the neck.
A bottle of Imperial Majesty No1 will set you back over £100,000, but only if you can get hold of one of the only ten bottles ever produced. No 1 by Clive Christian is only ever created in tiny quantities, so only 1,000 bottles of No 1 for Women and No 1 for Men are ever released onto the market every year. Clive Christian, a British producer of luxury furniture, only entered the world of exclusive fragrance when he bought the Crown Perfume Company in 2000. The Crown Perfume Company was founded in the 19th century and their scents were a firm favourite with Queen Victoria, which is how they acquired their crown emblem.One of the world’s most iconic fragrances is Joy by Jean Patou. Joy was created in 1929 by Henri Almeras for the Parisian designer Jean Patou. Even though it was incredibly expensive and launched at the height of the Depression, it was an instant success and became very popular.
Joy is regarded as one of the great floral fragrances in the world, and is created from a sublime blend of jasmine and roses. One of the reasons that Joy sells at such a high price, around $800 for an ounce, is that that it takes 28 dozen roses and 10,000 jasmine flowers to create just 30ml of the fragrance.
Of course, no discussion of the world’s most expensive and exclusive perfumes would be complete without mentioning Chanel No 5. Chanel No 5 might not be the costliest fragrance in the world today, although a bottle of Chanel No 5 parfum will still set you back in the region of $235 for a 100ml, but it is surely the most famous.
The name Chanel No 5 is synonymous with elegance, style and beautiful women, and has been the perfume of choice for the rich and fashionable since it was introduced to the world in 1921 by the Parisian fashion house Chanel, which was headed by the famous designer Coco Chanel. Chanel No 5 is one of the world’s best selling brands, despite its high price tag, and on an average day a bottle of Chanel No 5 is being sold somewhere around the globe every thirty seconds.
Chanel have now launched an even more expensive version of their famous perfume.called the ‘Grand Extrait’, it will cost a staggering £2700 a bottle.and is described as a rare collectible fragrance. So why is the new edition so expensive? Well apparently all in the bottle, as the No 5 formula has not been changed. The bottle for the new ‘Grand Extrait’ are crafted in a special mould which is then placed in a sleek, hand-crafted case.
There are many other incomparable fragrances on the market today, including Fracas by the designer Robert Piguet, Notorious by Ralph Lauren, Nahema and Mitsuoko by Guerlain, and Sensi by Giorgio Armani, all of which are very expensive and beautifully packaged.A beautiful bottle of expensive perfume is a wonderful gift to receive, especially if it is one that you have made your signature fragrance. Nothing beats going into a big department store or design house and choosing your favourite scent, but these days you also have the option of selecting your favourite brand online.
It may surprise you, but Amazon has a great selection of exclusive and designer luxury fragrances, so why not look online today to see if you can find your favourite. It is the perfect romantic gift to give to the one you love, so if you gentlemen are stuck for ideas on what to buy your beloved for Christmas or Valentine’s Day, then why not gift wrap that special bottle of the luxury fragrance that she has always dreamed of wearing and slip it under the Christmas Tree or leave it on her pillow on Valentine’s Day morning?

Copyright 2010 CMHypno on HubPages
Old Grasse sounds like something that has to be raked or mulched rather than the perfume capital of the world.
It hasn’t always been so. Quite the opposite. Until the 17th century it must have smelled vile because the central plaza was a tannery, where local sheep were transformed—gradually— into stylish leather gloves. The leather smelled so bad that the glovers began to scent them with powder made from the myrtle and other flowers that grew in the area.
By the early 17th century, perfumed gloves had become quite the fashion, and Louis XIII recognized Grasse’s Guild of Perfumed Glove Makers. Later in the century, Louis XIV granted the guild the exclusive right to make powder for the upper class’s powdered wigsUntil the middle of the 19th century, perfume makers were farmers who hauled their stills out to the fields where they collected the essence of their flowers to make people smell good.
Well, better.
Today, the more than two dozen perfumeries in Grasse produce two-thirds of the scents and flavorings in France.
Grasse is French for fat . The apocryphal etymology is that fat was the medium used to capture the scent of flowers, especially the more delicate flowers. The process, called enfleurage , dates from ancient Egypt. In practice here, it involved slathering fat on a glass pane in a wooden frame and then piling on the flower petals, usually something like jasmine or violets. The process was repeated in the next frame and stacked upon the first until there was a stack of about 35. When the petals had given up their essence, they were replaced with fresh petals and the process was repeated until the fat was supersaturated with the scent. Then the fat was washed in alcohol to extract the scent.
I rather doubt the name’s origin, though, since the town has existed here since the 11th century. (Look, I passed up the opportunity to say “fat chance!”)Although the region once abounded in flowers, for the most part, synthetics have usurped their position. Certainly there are fields of flo


My Choice Of The Best Beach Tables for 2014

Quilted table runners give a cozy feel to your dining table all year long but are especially nice for fall.The warm colors of fall are perfect when used in a quilted table runner. Earth tones evoke harvest and falling leaves and a general slowing down, which is perfect for the autumn season.Maybe you like to quilt and make your own. I love the look of one of a kind linens. But if you don’t have the time or the inclination, I’ve selected some great table runners for you to select from. The selection of quilted table runners provided here will help you give a subtle nudge to this special time of year.Photo Credit: jude from new york, usa on WikimediaQuilting was not something Americans dreamed up. Quilts and quilted clothing were made in ancient Egypt. And more recently, in the the 1600s, women wore quilted petticoats in Great Britain, Europe, and America as well as other places around the world.Not all early quilts were pieced from scraps of cloth from old clothes. Some of the more decorative quilts were made using new material.Hand piecing and hand sewn quilting isn’t always thought to be the best method of sewing quilts. When sewing machines were first available, women used their new machines to show off the even stitching in the binding and quilting of their quilts.Information Source: Women FolkThe warm earthy colors in this table runner gives a subtle look to any kitchen or dining room table. I think this would be equally beautiful atop a chest of drawers or dresser in the bedroom!Bring home fall to your table with these quilted table runners inspired by Hawaiian design. Each has a distinct look that might suit your home’s decor.This primitive table runner is a great addition to a home with a country look. The subdued colors are understated and beautiful.If you love the rustic feel of country decor, check out these patchwork table toppers. The casual feel makes them perfect for busy homes.eBay is a great place to find the perfect item. These table runner are just a few of the hundreds available up for auction.Do you prefer a table runner or a tablecloth on your dining table?Don’t see a table runner that matches your home decor? How about making one yourself. You can choose the fabric and color scheme so it’s a perfect fit for your dining room table or wherever you want to use it.Choose some lovely fabric either new, like the choices shown here, or use some favorite old clothes to made your own small quilts for your table. Piecing together a keepsake for everyday use is a special way to decorate your home.This author, Peggy Hazelwood, participates in Amazon, eBay, All Posters, and other affiliate advertising programs. When you click an advertising link on this page and make a purchase, I receive a small percent of the sale. Thank you for reading this far!It’s the holiday season and time for dessert tables! For all the family parties, company get-togethers, fundraisers and other events this season, why not create a beautiful, do it yourself dessert table (dessert buffet) or, Buffetscape.Dessert is most everyone’s favorite part of the meal anyway — creating a gorgeous table to show off your favorite holiday dessert recipes will only add to the festivities.Sadly, we have evolved into a casual society — paper plates, plastic forks, paper napkins; line ‘em up and serve’em. Taking a little extra time to display your desserts in an eye pleasing manner will be appreciated by your guests. With Christmas table decoration ideas and items you already have, you can create a memorable dessert table. Items such as garland, tiered stands, holiday signs, ornaments, candles, small themed trees, and Christmas centerpieces make the task easier than you think!All Photos belong to Mandee Sears — Please obtain permission before using — all rights reservedAn elegant Christmas party usually uses a base color of black or winter white. Then you add rich reds and greens and accent with gold and/or silver.Alternately, use whatever color scheme you come up with that’s different but still rich and elegant — red and purple, all gold, gold and silver, wines and winter whites, etc…Decor could include beaded trees, silver/gold serving ware, fancy ornaments, crystal or acrylic garland and candles.Retro – Vintage Christmas Dessert TableDecor items to use for a retro or vintage style dessert buffet can include:retro signs sleighs platters trees cards gift wrapand anything that reminds you of a good old fashioned Christmas celebration.Gather them together and let’s start building!For this style dessert buffet, gather any ornaments, garland, dishes, fabrics and, of course, candy that you want to use. Also grab items for risers and any tiered stands you can find.We are going to create some peaks and valleys and then fill them with candy theme decor and make your desserts look fantastic!The candy trees in the photo are really easy to make. Instructions for them are here: Gumdrop Christmas Tree.Add some festive holiday spirit to your dessert buffet with one of these holiday inspired tiered stands.How do you set a buffet table? Is there a certain formula? Buffets are a mainstay our society — whether it is a potluck or pitch-in party, something as important as a wedding or maybe a baby or bridal shower, buffets are a great way to serve your food offerings.Since buffets encourage mixing and mingling of guests they are very popular with hosts. Every host wants their guests to be comfortable and happy at their event. Making sure you have a pretty AND functional buffet will go a long way toward achieving this..Below, I have outlined some tips curated from my years in the wedding and catering industry. Hopefully these will help with your next self catered event or party!Credit: Karen Kuffel Party ServicesThere are many ways to create different heights for your buffet. One of the easiest is to use stacking cake plates. Use all three together to create a tower of sumptuous food. Or use only two or even all three separate if you like.Just a few suggestions to help your buffet come off without a hitch!If your buffet table has a true starting point, like a rectangle or long line shape, there are a few items you need to have readily available for guests at the beginning. Obviously, plates are the main ingredient. You can stack them if you like but if you want a bit more visual appeal than just a stack of plates, consider using a Dinner Plate Rack, a.k.a. dessert or tiered stand. You can add decor to the top or under a wire/metal frame to add some spice.Keep the remainder of plates nearby but out of site so you can refill easily.If your buffet is more “cocktail station” style or is a round or oval table with no real starting or finishing point, you could make small stacks of plates all around your table near the foods. That way, no matter where a guest approaches from, they will have a plate they can load up!Place your rolled flatware at the END of a long or rectangle buffet. Guests will need both hands while serving themselves from the buffet. It’s hard to juggle plates, silverware and serving at the same time.If it is round or oval, opt to have some rolled flatware next to each plate stack for convenience.Plate racks can be used to hold plates for your buffet or they can hold platters of desserts, appetizers or whatever you serve.Select your decor keeping your guests in mind. Candles are pretty and add ambience to a buffet. However, the open flame can be dangerous. Using l.e.d. votives, tealights, twinkle lights and pillar candles will keep your guests safe while they peruse your buffet. On one wants a sleeve passing over an open flame. (Suggestions shown below.)If you must use traditional candles, use them with tall candle holders or candelabras that guests won’t have to reach over or around, lessening the chance for an accident.Create peaks and valleys with your risers to allow guests to easily see and partake from the foods. These also give you lots of opportunities for decor. Place silk greenery in valleys and under risers. Place statuary or other decor items in and around the peaks and valleys. This makes for a welcoming and elegant display.Almost anything can be used on a buffet table as decor (as long as it’s food safe). I have found that using silk greenery and floral bushes like English ivy and wisteria are a great way to add some color and character to your buffet table. Place them in valleys, under plate holders or 3 tiered risers or at the base of another decor item for an elegant touch.Experiment and see what looks good!For more ideas and suggestions for creating a beautiful buffetscape, visit another of my articles titled Ideas for BuffetsLED candles are beautiful and give you that ambient lighting a candle doe but with one definite advantage — no open flame. Guests reaching across a buffet table can get burned or catch a sleeve on fire. Better safe than sorry!L.E.D. candles and lights are a much safer choice for decorating your buffet. Most have on/off swi


2011 World Cup : Best Cricketers Records, Photos, Videos, Winning shots, IPL latest news, photos

By
definition, Cricket is a form of outdoor sports, which is played by two teams with
bat, ball and field, in an oval shaped area. It carries a set of regulations
and an umpire to implement them.

Cricket
is known worldwide as a sensational game, which creates tremendous amount of
hype and thrill in the hearts of cricket lovers around the globe. It is known
as a gentlemen’s game, but its viewership includes women, children and aged
people from all around the world.

It
is somewhat similar to the baseball in its functioning, but the rules and
regulations are different.Cricket
became popular in early 70s. Since then, it is said to be originated from
England in 1975. In recent times, it is organized on the international level
under the supervision of ICC International Cricket Council. The headquarters of
ICC is in Dubai, UAE.The
game starts when a coin is tossed in the air to shift the first bating or bowling
decision for the captain (of the team), who wins the toss. The objective of this
game is to score maximum runs in its turn to bat, called as an innings.Each
team comprises of 11 players entitled to play in a match by the authorities.
The players can be regarded as batsmen or bowlers depending upon their level of
skills in respective fields. A player, who has a balanced performance, is an all-rounder.

The
number of batsmen in a team is mostly 5 – 6, while the number of bowlers is 4 –
5. The
key functions that players have to perform are:

·        
Bating

·        
Bowling

·        
FieldingBatsman:The
batsman has to score runs by hitting the ball to the field. If the ball crosses
boundary without being held by the fielder, score is four and if it flies
straight away from the boundary without touching the ground, it is called a
sixer i.e., 6 runs.

A
batsman can also run between the wickets to make runs. A wicket-to-wicket
running
from one end to the other of the pitch confines one run.

Two batsmen
are allowed on the field at a time with one holding the strike. The rest of
team players wait in the pavilion area for their turn. A batsman is out when:

·
The ball/bat hits the bails·
The ball stroked by the batsman flies in the air
and gets caught

·
The leg
before wicket appeal (l.b.w) made by the bowler is approved by the umpire

·
In case of run out; when the ball returned by
the fielder struck bails off before the batsman is in the crease.Bowler:It
is the job of a bowler to throw ball to the batsman with a particular line and length.
The aim of the bowler however, should be to limit score to the minimum and to
dismiss the batsman.

An
inning is divided into overs and an over is divided into 6 balls delivered. The
overs vary with the type of cricket, whereas, the number of balls vary if there
are wide or no ball attempts from
the bowler. No bowler can bowl two consecutive overs. A bowler can try
bouncers, Yorkers, in and off swings and spin the ball to get it in the right
area to dismiss the batsman. The line and length however, is a crucial factor,
which has to be maintained anyway.Fielder:All
the players in a team have to field when the bowler of the team is bowling and
the opposite team is on the bat. Fielding is about saving runs by picking,
catching and stopping the ball within the boundary when a batsman of the
opponent team strikes. All of the fielders are committed to perform same task
and can shift positions according to the instruction of their team captain.

However,
the Wicket keeper has to guard stumps, wear gloves to catch the ball in case of
missed delivery or catch coming near the stumps.The
field is a circular ground with lush green grass and its dimensions are not fixed.
The radius of the field is 137m – 150m (450 – 500 feet).

The
boundary of the field is defined by a rope, which sets border of the ground separating
it from rest of the stadium.Pitch: The
rectangular ground patch in the middle, with a little bit of grass on it, is
called a Pitch. One end of pitch is used as batting area and the other end as
bowling area. The size of the pitch is 20.12m in length and 3.05m in width.Wickets:Three
upright wooden sticks called wickets are fixed in the ground at both ends of
the pitch with a height of 71.1 cm and width of 22.86cm. Two cross pieces of
wood, the bails, sit in a furrow over these wickets.

The
word wicket is used in multiple ways, whereas, in cricket language, it can be referred
to:

 Stumps and bails The pitch Batsman out/not-out To get batsman outCrease:Painted
lines on the pitch to adjudge dismissal of the batsman, while running between
the wickets or leaving batting end after a bowl is delivered.

A
crease is drawn across the pitch, which aligns stumps to its width.

Bowling
crease is 2.64m (8 feet 8 inches) in length.

Distance
between the two creases is 20.12m.

The batting
(popping) crease is 1.22m in front of the stumps at each end, with the stumps
set along the bowling crease.

Return
creases are situated at right angles to the batting and bowling creases and are
measured 1.32m either side of the middle stumps.Umpires: In
cricket, there are two umpires on the field.

 The position of first umpire is behind the
stumps, facing towards the batsman to declare most on-the-spot decisions. Striker end Umpire or square leg umpire gives
side view of the batsman, playing an assistant’s role. An off field third umpire is provided with
visual-replays facility in a separate room at the stadium to supervise laws and
spirit of the game. He makes decisions, which are forwarded by the field
umpires. Reserved Umpire is also present for emergencies. An official scorer is present to ensure fair
recording of the runs and overs.Depending
upon their duration, number of innings and overs, cricket series is categorized
into 3 major forms:

Test Cricket seriesOne Day Internationals (ODI)Twenty-twenty series (T-20)Test Series:It
is one of the most popular forms of cricket. A series usually comprises of a
five test matches. Most of the matches are often finished before time. This
form of cricket, aims to keep spirit of early cricket, alive. A five days long
match gives clear cut evaluation of a team’s performance. The stamina,
technique and skill of a batsman, bowler, fielder or a wicket keeper is further
used to rank the team overall and the players individually, at the end of each
series.

Time Duration:

Time
duration is five days and about six hours of play time each day. Each team has
to bowl out the whole competitor team, twice. A day is divided into three
sessions, with a 40-mins lunch break and a 20-mins tea break with periodic
breaks for drinks.

Innings:

Test
series comprise of two innings per team. An innings ends either when all team
is out or when the bating team’s captain declares the innings. If the second
innings is not complete and the bating line is still playing at the last day of
match, then the match is declared as a ‘draw.’ The number of innings is
interrupted in case of Follow on,
which occurs when the second team is all out on a fewer runs than the first
team.

Overs:

At
least 90 overs have to be bowled each day. If at the time of stumps, the
required number of overs is not bowled, play is extended to complete it.
Minimum is calculated by dividing remaining time of play in mins by 4. At last
day, 15 overs are added to the calculated minimum.

In case
of poor weather, the match is delayed. In poor light the umpires put decision
to the batsman for further proceeding of the match.Ball Dimensions:A
test cricket ball is red in color. It has a weight of 155.9 and 163.0 g (5 and
5.75 ounces) and measure between 8 13/16 and 9 in (224 and 229 mm) in
circumference. A new ball is given at the start of each innings. The ball is
replaced, in case, after 80 overs on fielding captain request, if the ball is
damaged or lost or has reshaped.Uniform:Cricket
whites or white flannels are to be used while playing a test series. It
increases visibility of red ball as compared to white color. The color is
helpful in avoiding heat on field, all day long.Time Duration:

As
the name indicates, the match has to culminate in one day, so, time is
restricted in one day internationals to; approximately 210 mins (3, 1/2 hrs). It
is one of the most exciting forms of cricket, which bring into light, the era
of players in colored uniform, night match with flood lights, sight screens in
darkness, and multiple camera angles.

Innings:

There
is a single inning per team during which, the first team sets a target for the
other team to achieve.

Overs:

 Fifty overs have to be bowled in one day
internationals. The number may be varied by umpires by one or two overs, if
there is a light problem or extra time has been consumed by the bowling team. Number
of overs per bowler is also fixed, i.e. 10 overs for each bowler. Strict rules
on wide balls and short deliveries are applied.Winning Criteria:The
team with greater scores/runs wins.Ba


Novelty Cycling Jerseys for Women

The Lake District is a National Park in the county of Cumbria in North-West England.
The Lake District is a cyclists dream. Whether you’re looking for exceptional mountain biking, quiet country lanes, beautiful views or some of the most challenging cycling climbs in the UK.
The Lake District offers a great variety of road cycling routes. You can follow gentle roads along the edges of some of the world most beautiful Lakeland scenary, or looking to tackle some steep and challenging road cycling climbs followed by a cup of tea and fantastic home-made cakes.The Lake District is home to the highest Mountain in England; Scafell Pike at 976m as well as some of England’s highest Mountain passes which surround the area and interlink many villages and towns throughout the Lake District.
Lake District Mountain Passes
How high are the mountain passes in the Lake District? (In order of height)
Kirkstone Pass 454m
Hardknott Pass 393m
Wrynose Pass 393m
Honister Pass 356m
Whinlatter Pass 318m
While these climbs are not by any means high by European standards. The British technique of building roads has tended to be seen as building a road over an obstacle, not around an obstacle as you find with the roads that meander up a Mountain. Therefore the tend to get much more steep cycling climbs in the UK.Hardknott Pass is arguably the most challenging cycling climb in both the Lake District and England.
From Cockley Beck is the hardest side of the climb with sections of 30% (that’s almost 1 in 3!). The road climbs up via a series of switchbacks up to Hardknott Fort. An old Roman Fort up high in the Pennine Hills. Once you’re riding up you begin to question the logic of why you started the climb why you cry out for it to finish.
This is a climb for which a compact chainset or even (don’t crucify the author) a triple chainset could be acceptable for. You’ll still be on the rivet and in your largest cogs on the rear.
Recommended gear for Hardknott Pass 39×27, 34×25 or even smallerCycling through the beautiful Eskdale valley you pass the Hardknott Brewery and Eskdale Youth Hostel before the road starts to snake upwards after a car parking area at the base of Eskdale where the switchbacks commence. Some very tight and even steeper on the insides so keep to the outsides where visibility will allow it. Almost 300 meters and 2.5 km of climbing later you will be at the top of Hardknott Pass with exceptional views of the Fells of the Lake District. Not quite so well known as it’s next door neighbour Hardknott Pass but on the same road running from Eskdale following the descent off Hardknott comes the almost as intimmidating climb of Wrynose Pass.
With sections getting up to 25% Wrynose Pass by Bicycle is not quite as steep as Hardknott but just as hard work, especially if your legs are tired from an initial climb. The Wrynose Pass offers breathtaking views toward the Pike of Blisco and down into the valley to Langdale.
The climb either starts from the junction at Cockley Beck with an initial ride alongside the River Duddon. Or from the opposite direction you can start the climb from Little Landale.
Recommended gear for cycling Wrynose Pass 39×27, 34×25 If you’re looking for a cycling climb which will give you some phenomenal views of the Lake District Mountain scenary consider the climb over Barker Fell either from Ulpha, or Eskdale. It offers a rise up[ to a mountain plateau at a height of around 250 m above sea level but gives the opportunity of views over to Harter Fell, Dow Crag, the Old Man of Coniston as well as the Scafell Massif, Bow Fell and Crinkle Crags. Barker Fell offers amazing views while cycling in the Lake District.
The climb over Barker Fell is not excessively challenging,m although if you start in Ulpha village it does initiall kick up to around 15% gradient for the first half a kilometre. Once over the initial difficult section the views over the many Fells from your bike will be worth the effort.
Recommended gear for cycling Barker Fell: 39×25 or 34×23 (if tackling the tougher Ulpha climbing section)The Kirkstone Pass is the highest mountain pass to cycle in the Lake District. The road climbs instantly out of Windermere on the A592 road which offers fantastic views of the high Fells of High Street, Ill Bell and Harter Fell which look incredibly imposing out in front as you climb gradually up to a height of 454 m above sea level over the course of 5 miles. Some sections kick up to around 10% but generally this isn’t a challenge in the same league as Hardknott Pass in terms of steepness and relentless gradient.
Atop the climb of the Kirkstone Pass lies the Kirstone Pass Inn which is a great opportunity to stop and wait for anyone that may be behind you or simply take in the views.
The hardest climb of the Kirkstone Pass is via ‘The Struggle’ which heads out of Ambleside on a minor road which leads to a 20% end section up to the Kirkstone Pass Inn and is shown in the distance below.
Both are great cycling climbs to ride in the Lake District and offer stunning views.
Recommended gear for cycling Kirkstone Pass: 39×23 or 34x21We hope you’ve enjoyed this guide to the cycling climbs and high mountain passes of the Lake District. If there’s a particular pass you feel should be included or you would like to have your say please feel free to do so in the comments below.
Alternately if you have any photo’s that you would like to see on this page please contact CyclingFitness (via his profile) who will add them to the article. The Lake District is a magical place for cycling for which we would love to share our love for.Simply put, your Lactate Threshold is the point in which lactic acid begins to accumulate in your blood. This is that burning sensation in your muscles that you get during exercise. In power terms, this is also referred to as your Functional Threshold Power, or the power you can handle for an entire 60 minute period. While this number employs the concept that the power you can produce is variable or stochastic and not a constant, your actual lactate threshold is pretty much set. Both your FTP and your Lactate Threshold can give you powerful insight in to your training intensities as well as a predictor for your potential endurance sport performance. While improving your Endurance Base is important, improving your threshold power will bring your competitive prowess to new heights.
If you are not sure where to begin after reading this guide be sure to get yourself a good quality cycling coach and get yourself on the right path, you will not regret it.
Training is easy, planning your training is not. The three factors that will determine weather or not your training program is effective are: Volume, Frequency and Intensity.
With Threshold, the intensity is just as important as the frequency. Intensity will be on the upper levels of physical exertion that a human body will be able to produce. Generally speaking as you work to improve your Threshold Power, your volume will decrease, while frequency will continue to be similar to the frequency in Endurance Training, it will decrease some.
Typically speaking the efforts that will be utilized the most will be between 90%-105% of your Functional Threshold Power. Typical efforts are as follows:
Efforts of 15 minutes 90-95% FTP
Efforts of 10 minutes 95-100% FTP
Efforts of 8 minutes 100-105% FTP
Intensities are kept with in 5% of each other depending on the amount of time spent at that power. While Functional Threshold Power is power that you can handle for 60 minutes, training at Threshold for that long will drain you completely and is ill advised for making gains. Training to long and to hard will keep you from being able to perform well on back to back days and severely hamper your ability to also maintain the frequency needed to get stronger.It can sometimes be difficult to know exactly how often or how many intervals should be done in a typical training load. Often it requires intimate knowledge of the athletes fatigue and body’s current abilities. In any event, please take these as merely suggestions on frequency and seek professional guidance in determining you own training plan.
Efforts of 15 minutes @ 90%-95% should be done for a maximum of 2 per session and 8 per week.
Efforts of 10 minutes @ 95%-100% should be done for a maximum of 4 per session and 8 per week.
Efforts of 8 minutes @ 100%-105% should be done for a maximum of 4 per session and 8 per week.
Some elite and world class athletes will be able to handle going over our recommendations, and some amateurs will struggle to even maintain half of our maximum guidelines. This is a variance which varies based on your current abilities, conditioning and recovery. As such, we recommend that you seek out the aid of a professional coach to help you best succeed in your efforts.Sleep 8 hours per day, no excuses, get your rest
Consume 250 calories in the 30 minutes post exercise, a 3-1 ration of carbs-protein is recommended.
Take days